Tropical countries that our grandparents only knew from stories are now holiday destinations: the savannas in Kenya as well as the last rainforests in Thailand or the beaches of the Caribbean. As a result, “normal tourists” come into contact with dangers that only researchers and adventurers used to face - far too often, today's holidaymakers do not inform themselves about poisonous animals.
Whoever studies the documents of the great explorers, whether Alexander von Humboldt's expeditions to South America, Charles Darwin's trip around the world with the Beagle or David Livingstone's march into the wilderness of East Africa, will see that the greatest dangers in hot countries in and outside the tropics do not come from the predators at the top of the food pyramid.
It is not the great white shark, the Bengal tiger or the Nile crocodile that cause the most problems in the warm climates, but cobras and kraits, scorpions and spiders, cone snails and poisonous fish.
Why do animals produce poisons?
In the rainforest, in the desert, or in the coral reef: poison belongs to nature.
The poison dart frogs of South America store the poison of the ants they eat, the desert scorpion of the American Southwest, shorter than a middle finger, can easily send a person out of the world with a full load of its poison - it is therefore so strong that it is the tank penetrates the beetle from which it feeds.
Many holidaymakers underestimate poisonous animals in the sea: the oceans are not a hotel swimming pool; Especially in coral reefs, living things are in extreme competition with each other and they have to assert themselves in order to survive.
Poisons serve both to ward off predators and to hunt prey. The more predators and the more competing species there are, the greater the pressure of natural selection - the basic law of evolution.
In the coral reef as well as in the tropical rainforest: the more species throng in ecological niches - and the more interesting these areas are for nature tourists - the more animals produce toxins, many of which are dangerous to humans.
Defense - no hunt
Accidents involving poisonous animals are also very rare in the tropics. But when this happens, the bites, stings, or nettles are at least painful, often dangerous, and sometimes fatal.
Those who prepare should first assess why poisonous animals harm people. No animal with a poison machine, whether it is a Texas rattlesnake, blue ring octopus or Colorado toad, lurks people because it regards them as prey.
So when such animals bite or stick people, they feel threatened. They see no escape route and react instinctively by defending themselves. Some poisonous animals even warn - for example, rattlesnakes.
Her last hollow skin limbs on the tail make a clattering sound that stands out clearly from the chirping of the crickets and other sounds of the small animals on the floor. In evolution, this rattling probably developed to warn large ungulates like deer and bison: "Don't step on me."
What to do?
There are some rules of conduct you should follow in warm countries to prevent poisoning by animals. Failure to comply with it would be like going over red lights in this country and wondering if you hit a car.
1) Do not leave food, clothing or shoes lying around on the earth. Scorpions, spiders and snakes like to settle in it.
2) If you sleep in the tent: Close the entrance when you leave the tent or stay in it. For large tents: Make sure that the inner sleeping tents are closed.
Before the trip, check whether there are holes in your tent wall through which scorpions, spiders or snakes could penetrate. The animals are attracted to the body heat and therefore like to crawl to sleep.
3) Shake out your clothes and shoes before putting them on. Shoes and jacket pockets are ideal “caves” for scorpions, and when you step into their shoes, the animals behave just as if someone in their place of protection presses them: they sting - depending on the species, painfully like a bee, dangerous or for example sometimes fatal to the tiny red Indian scorpion from India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
4) Dispose of leftover food at a clear distance from your storage and store your food in odorless plastic boxes: food attracts mice and mice attract snakes.
Most of the accidents with cobras and kraits in India and houses or with rattlesnakes in housing estates in the USA happen because the snakes come close to people because of the rats and mice living there.
5) Sleep under a mosquito net, attach mosquito screens to windows and doors. This way insects, spiders and scorpions don't get to their bodies.
Be careful with a beach holiday
The oceans are not a swimming pool. While the large sharks cause few fatal accidents worldwide each year, the "deep blue sea" is full of active or passive poisonous animals: sponges, soft corals, sea squirts and crust anemones secrete poisons in order to assert themselves against space competitors (sponges) or to prevent predators from doing so to eat them (anemones).
Cone snails kill their prey with poison arrows. An Australian species secretes the strongest poison of all living things; Sea snakes also hunt with poison, as do jellyfish.
Around 250 known fish species are poisonous: some warn potential predators with eye-catching colors like the lionfish, others camouflage themselves like the stone fish. The dragonfish and scorpion fish are among the most poisonous fish. They have converted their dorsal fins into venomous spines, but also have anal and pelvic spines.
The blue ring octopuses are at home from Indonesia to the Philippines to New Guinea and Australia. They live in shallow water up to 50 m deep, preferably on reefs. All species of the genus have a strong nerve poison, which they release on a bite; this poison, tetrodotoxin, can be fatal to humans.
It leads to paralysis, especially in the chest and diaphragm, in the two hours after the bite and thus triggers a respiratory arrest. Artificial respiration is crucial; if it succeeds, the poison has no after-effects.
Precaution in the sea
At the sea, note the following:
1) Wear bathing shoes. Many poisonous marine animals lie on the bottom, camouflage themselves in the color of sand or stones and have poisonous spines. Stone fish, for example, are very dangerous poison fish; they have their name because they are drawn like stones and are also covered with algae. They live in the shallow water, and fin rays connected with poisonous glands lie on the dorsal fin.
The Peterman in the Atlantic, Middle and Black Sea spends the day buried to the eyes, often close to beaches. Its poison contains serotonin and proteins and causes histamine to be released: Usually the stinging point hurts "only" and swells up; However, if you have an allergic reaction, you will experience dizziness, you will pass out and you can even experience cardiac arrest. Unconsciousness alone can mean drowning in the water.
2) If you snorkel or dive on coral reefs, the basic rule is: don't touch anything, or if you can't help it, look closely. Before Australia, for example, you could reach into a blue ring octopus or a deadly cone snail on the reef.
3) When you get into the water, swim as fast as you can, especially if you can't see the bottom because the water is too churned. Even when you see the floor under your feet, you often don't see buried pet men or stingrays.
4) Do not touch sea animals on the beach that you do not know: the nettle poison of jellyfish also works on dry land, and extremely poisonous cone snails also shoot their arrows on land.
5) Avoid the accumulation of jellyfish when in the water.
First aid for poisoning
1) Try to relax - the more excited you are, the faster the poison spreads through the body.
2) If possible, rinse the bite area with clean fresh water. Neither you nor anyone else should vacuum the bite site. In the worst case, the person who gets the poison in his mouth is poisoned.
3) Take pain relievers.
4) Immediately see a doctor who, for example, has the special antiserum ready for snake venom. Describe the appropriate poison animal to the doctor very precisely. This is the only way he can find the right antiserum - such an antidote is not a child's toy, and people have already died because they received the wrong antiserum.
5) If the bite is on the limbs, tie off the leg or arm, but only so that a little blood can continue to flow, and only if it takes more than 30 minutes to see a doctor . Loosen the bandage for 30 seconds every 30 minutes.
6) If you are being transported, move as little as possible.
Where are there venomous snakes?
Like all cold-blooded reptiles, snakes love warm countries because they cannot maintain their body temperature themselves. There are therefore only a few snake species in Germany, and only two of them are poisonous - adder and aspis viper.
The metropolis of venomous snakes is Australia - 70% of all snakes are poisonous here, but there are only around 3000 venomous snake bites per year, which is probably due to the modern infrastructure and the fact that most Australians live in cities during the dry hot outback is almost deserted.
Hundreds of thousands of people are bitten in Asia every year, as is Africa; 10,000 bites annually in the United States; numbers are higher in Central and South America, but probably less than 20,000.
Such are the most conservative estimates. However, some experts consider this to be too low; a study in India found 46,000 deaths each year instead of the 2000 officially stated. In large parts of Africa, Asia and South America, most victims are rural people - woodworkers who are bitten by lance vipers in Costa Rica, goatherds who fall victim to a puff adder in Tanzania or rice farmers in Bengal, whose lives end a cobra. These people do not appear in official statistics because no hospital is listed when they die in their village.
For example, doctor David Warrel of the University of Oxford says: "In the 21st century, the snake bite is the most neglected tropical disease." The WHO writes 5 million snake bites annually internationally - 125,000 of them deadly and 300,000 end up with a permanent disability.
The Antarctic, some islands in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic and the Caribbean as well as Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Hawaii and Madagascar are free of venomous snakes.
What is snake venom?
Snake venom consists for the most part of proteins, partly enzyme-forming, partly poison. The poison in the snake's body is used for digestion, this is ensured by the enzymes. This is necessary because snakes do not chew their prey, but gulp it down with bones, skin and hair - large giant snakes even with hooves, horns and antlers. Instead of chewing, the enzymes break down the prey in the body.
These enzymatic proteins in snake venom have a devastating effect on our body: Viper bites dissolve the tissue around the bite site and lead to internal bleeding.
The toxins in snake venom, on the other hand, act on the cell membranes, they interrupt the transport of messenger substances in the organism or lead to paralysis such as respiratory arrest. We speak of tissue and nerve toxins.
Few snakes have both in their arsenal, for example a few rattlesnakes. Your hemotoxin thins the blood, which spreads through the capillaries in the organs - internal bleeding overrides the balance of the cardiovascular system. The pain corresponds to that of a burn on the border to the third degree. It only takes a few minutes now and the brain transmissions to the respiratory system stop; the heartbeat stops - the vital organs no longer work. It takes an hour and the victim is dead - at least if the rattlesnake uses all of its poison.
But this is rarely the case. Most rattlesnake bites are dry - the snake does not inject poison, it just warns. Or it releases less than 10% of its poison; the neurotoxins and hemotoxins are valuable and the animals do not waste energy.
In humans, the snake usually starts a defense bite with little poison; an attack bite with a full load, on the other hand, serves to attack: the snake thus kills its prey, and the rat or rabbit should be immediately paralyzed.
The greatest danger here is when the snake confuses parts of a human body with its prey, for example when a sleeping person shrugs its foot, or when we wag our hands where the animal is waiting for prey.
Typical mistakes after a snake bite
To prepare yourself for a snake bite, it's best to forget everything you've read about it in adventure novels. You should only bind the wound in certain cases, never cut it and never suck it out.
Setting only makes sense for heavy bleeding. In the case of snake bites, the poison builds up in a small part of the body when it sets - the poison so concentrated can cause you to lose a foot or hand, for example.
If you cut a snake's bite wound, the tissue poison injected will accelerate its exitus. The tissue poison thins the blood and flows faster, if you are unlucky, you bleed to death faster than you die from the poison. Before you bleed to death, your already weakened organism will also become weaker due to the poison. Cutting open a wound with tissue poison so that the poison flows out is like holding a burn in the fire.
Sucking out takes valuable time at best; a person cannot create enough negative pressure with his mouth to draw a lot of fluid from the tissue.
The poisoned, however, should avoid any movement so that the blood flows more slowly. If his heart or respiratory system fails, he must be revived as soon as possible.
These measures are not a guarantee of survival. In the case of the eastern tiger snake in Australia, for example, it takes about 5 minutes to stop breathing, a cape cobra in South Africa can kill six people with its poison, a king cobra can easily kill an elephant.
Common venomous snakes
The coral otters in both parts of America are approximately 80 species with a colorful banding in red, yellow, black and white. Their colors imitate the non-toxic coral snakes. The otters have a neurotoxin that paralyzes the muscles and causes them to stop breathing in about 15 hours.
Many species of venomous snakes live in North Africa, tropical Africa. The fastest of them and the fastest snake at all is the Black Mamba. She is also extremely aggressive to defend her territory and is one of the few snakes to persecute people.
It is also one of the longest venomous snakes, and its poison bags contain up to 40 mg of nerve poison per bite. With this amount, a person stops breathing after 20 minutes - usually long before a doctor with serum is within reach. Fortunately, the black mamba only bites "sharply" with every bite.
The other mambas like the green and the Jamesons Mamba bite with a deadly poison, but are nowhere near as aggressive. The green mamba is a tree snake and its green color excellently camouflages the foliage. So take a close look at a tree before settling in the tree savannas of Tanzania or Botswana for a picnic; this rule also applies to less dangerous species in Africa, such as the weakly toxic boomslang.
The bamboo otter lives in countries that have been on the mass tourism agenda for the past 15 years, namely in bamboo forests in Southeast Asia. Their venom attacks the tissue, but the snake does not have enough venom to kill a human.
Gabon and rhinoceros vipers are related species of very heavy snakes that live on the floor of the African rainforest and camouflage themselves as fallen leaves. The Gabon Viper's fangs are up to 5 cm long, so they penetrate deep into the tissue, inject up to 200 mg of nerve poison and destroy the vessels within two hours. The bloodstream and internal organs fail, the brain functions fail. Then death sets in - due to respiratory arrest.
Anyone who travels in the forests of tropical Africa should therefore wear sturdy boots that go beyond the ankles and feel the undergrowth in front of them with a stick. The Gabon viper is not quick; she relies on her camouflage. Therefore, it does not flee when shaken. So the danger of stepping on them is great. Especially in the dark, you should pay attention to the floor with every step and take a flashlight with you.
Most accidents in Africa happen with the puff adder. It is thick, sand-colored and lives in dry to semi-dry regions. It is particularly dangerous because, like the Gabon viper, it does not flee, but stays there.
For example, a careless tourist from Sweden had to have his thumb amputated near Rufiji, Tanzania, because he wanted to turn the, he thought, dead snake lying on the street towards his camera. The snake, a young puff adder, barely longer than 40 cm, was almost alive and bit his thumb.
Various cobras are widespread in Africa. The spitting cobras can spray their poison up to four meters away. Here there is a risk of going blind if the poison gets in the eyes. The Cape Cobra is considered the most dangerous snake in South Africa because it comes in search of rats and mice in the houses and cities. There she inevitably meets people.
All cobras live on the ground and mostly hide in rodent structures or hollow trees - unfortunately also in wardrobes or lumber rooms. In cities, the animals only become active at dusk.
When they feel threatened, cobras usually try to escape. If they do not see an escape route, then take on their threatening posture: they lift their upper bodies and spread their necks so that they appear larger; the snake has two black circles on the skin that look like eyes. Cobras appraise the other person and hiss. In this phase they can happen at any time; the spitting cobras then try to spit in the eyes of the potential enemy.
The most poisonous snakes
Scientists calculate snake venom according to the milligrams needed to kill a person - the lethal dose (LD). The most poisonous snakes in the world live in Australia: While the native adder in theory would need 6.45 mg to kill a human - which practically never happens in Australia - the Inland Taipan needs just 0.025 mg. The poison of a single animal can kill 230 people. There is primarily danger for outdoor travelers in the outback, and luckily the Taipan is not particularly aggressive.
The common brown snake of Australia and New Guinea follows with a lethal dose of 0.053 mg, the eastern tiger snake of the southern continent needs 0.12 mg, the beak-headed sea snake of the Australian coast paralyzes the entire body; the victims die after 2 to 8 hours, unless they immediately drown when diving. The Death Viper lives up to its reputation with a cocktail of tissue and nerve poison. If the victims survive, they often have to have their hands or feet amputated. The Stephenś banded snake in Australia is even more dangerous. It still has an LD of 1.36 mg, but behaves extremely aggressively. Australia’s deadly snake also includes the Eastern Small-eyed Otter.
The king cobra
The South Asian royal cobra is not only the longest snake in the world, the poison of a single bite from it could also kill 20 healthy adults. Your nerve poison is used to paralyze the prey. The king cobra eats other snakes, including smaller cobras like the glasses snake, and paralyzes them with their poison. Then she can calmly eat the motionless prey alive.
However, the king cobra is not a cultural successor. It lives mainly in sparse forests, and tourists will rarely come across the line. The cobra is also not particularly aggressive towards people.
In India, many more people die from bites from the sand-rattle, the kraits and the Indian cobra. All three are in and around the Indian settlements. Krait and Kobra come into the house to hunt rodents; the sand-rattle otter lives on dry earth and therefore feels comfortable on the paths and fields of the villagers.
Rattlesnakes are pit vipers of the New World; most species live in Canada, the US and Mexico, a few in South America. Rattlesnakes mainly hunt rodents such as mice, rats and ground squirrels, but also birds and amphibians.
All rattlesnakes are poisonous and use their poison for hunting as well as for defense.
Rattlesnakes that bite people often clatter beforehand, but sometimes they don't. When you see the snake, pay attention to the following:
1) Is the head flat and triangular?
2) Is the body compact?
3) Does the animal have openings between the nostrils and eyes - the pit organ
4) If you get close: does the snake have elliptical pupils?
5) Is the coloring light brown and brown patterned? Is that true for most rattlesnakes?
6) Does she have a rattle at the tail end that she might even rattle with?
Several of these features together indicate a rattlesnake.
Risk for tourists: Various types of rattlesnakes are particularly common in the southwestern United States, they love the dry and hot climate.
The tourist magnets of the Southwest such as the Grand Canyon, Monument Valley or Southern California are rattlesnake hotspots. Most outdoor travelers are preparing to meet snakes; “Normal tourists” who, for example, take a “small desert tour” after a weekend in Las Vegas are particularly at risk, because rattlesnakes are not interested in whether someone is walking in the footsteps of Karl May through the Liano Estacado or a burger and Colapause on the highway.
Rattlesnakes are most active in the summer after sunset. First, always wear walking shoes that go over your ankles and, secondly, have your flashlight with you when it gets dark. Walk as insightful as possible on paved trails - the starry sky in the Chihuahua Desert may be romantic, but you don't have to walk between the cacti and, in case of doubt, don't even know if they're in a cactus kicked, a snake bit it, or a scorpion stung it.
In winter in Alberta you will hardly encounter a rattlesnake, but in southern Arizona it will fill up in the sun on mild winter days. Expect a rattlesnake in the southwestern United States and further south, even in winter.
Watch out for possible hiding places: rattlesnakes avoid anything that could eat them, and that includes people. We rarely see the animals warming up in the sun; Most of the time you have been hiding: Therefore, go carefully and with a long walking stick on cracks in the rock, shrubs, high grass or holes in the ground - especially if you want to settle there.
Wear the right clothes - this is possible for all venomous snakes, for rainforests such as deserts, tropics and temperate latitudes. Shorts and loafers are unsuitable for a hike in "Snake Country".
Most snakes bite hands, feet and ankles. The basic rule for hands is: Do not touch anything that you cannot see or where, in the dark, you have felt with a stick.
The hiking shoes should cover the ankles, the socks should be firm and made of tame material; the trousers are best long and airy - the snake teeth simply go into the skin through skinny jeans. If you don't wear long trousers, try shin guards.
"Dont treat on me" - The right behavior
The phrase "Don't step on me" over the image of a rattlesnake was one of the first flags of American independence fighters against the British Empire. It summarizes well what you should be aware of when compared to rattlesnakes.
If you don't "step on the snake", so it doesn't feel threatened, the animal will leave you alone. But if you do, it may be fatal to you.
It is best not to hike alone. Incidentally, this also applies to other risks of the wilderness. Have your cell phone handy so that you can call for help in an emergency. Let at least one person know their route and arrange fixed times for them to report.
Stay on the beaten track. Do not rummage in cracks in the earth, rock holes or between tree roots. And don't sit on stumps without examining them.
Step on and not over obstacles. If the snake is underneath, it is easier for you to back away: if the animal is under the trunk and you walk over it, it is likely to catch you in the calf.
If you jump, look closely at the target beforehand, if possible. If you jump on the reptile, there is little left but to bite.
Take her stick and use it to stomp on the floor in front of you. The snake notices the vibrations and disappears.
The following applies to all snakes: Forget your "do it yourself". Exploring a terrain alone satisfies the discovery fever, but also leads to nasty surprises with venomous snakes that can be avoided: So ask the fishermen in the village in the Sundarbans in India, the Guarao Indians in the Orinoco Delta or the Rangers in the Big Bend National Park, where you can expect which snakes, when they will be active, and what to watch out for.
Instead of a snake bite, this may result in unforgettable observation of these fascinating animals - with expert accompaniment.
Spiders can also bite painfully, but only a few species are fatal. The risk of a spider biting is low, but some dangerous species have behavior that puts them in uncomfortable proximity to humans.
The best-known poison spider is the Black Widow - especially the species that lives in North America. She likes to lurk for insects in toilets and city parks. So there is a risk that such a spider bites into the soft parts of the abdomen.
If the animal bites, the symptoms begin after a quarter of an hour. The tears flow like the saliva, the pain becomes unbearable because the poison sets all the neurotransmitters in motion.
The effect of the poison is generally exaggerated. In the United States, extremely few people die from the bite of a black spider, and similar to our adder, the poison is hardly fatal to healthy adults. When the pain, which is terrible, subsides after a day, those affected recover fully and without suffering the consequences.
The banana spider as unwanted fellow travelers leads to the closing of supermarkets in this country. The animal measures at least 10 cm and nests in houses in Brazil. Unlike the black widow, she is aggressive and jumps up to a meter to bite people. The victims sweat and vomit and are shocked.
The tarantula or wolf spider occurs in southern Europe. Whoever bites them is "stung by the tarantula". The victims suffer from pain and twitching.
The large tarantulas have a bad reputation - wrongly. They have poison, but that's not more dangerous than that of a bee. The impressive animals, some species reach the diameter of a DIN-A-4 plate, do not rely on their poison, but on their large biting tools, with which they easily kill mice and birds.
Extensive relatives of the spiders are the scorpions. The few species that live in southern Europe are painful to humans, but not dangerous. The situation is very different for some types of tropical Africa, the Middle East, India and America.
Similar to the tarantulas, the size of the body does not determine the risk of poison in the scorpions: the largest scorpion, the African Pandinus imperator, is a popular and harmless terrarium animal.
The Mexican species of the Centrutroides genus, on the other hand, can kill people with their poison, as can the Botidus scorpions. All of these highly dangerous species are small to tiny - scorpions can be recognized by the size of their poisonous glands under the sting.
If such a centrutroid or botidus scorpion stabs, the body releases neurotransmitters. The victims vomit, sweat breaks out, blood pressure rises, pulmonary edema occurs. There are antisera, but scorpions often stab where no doctor is - on a jungle trip, a trip to the desert, or a savannah safari.
For scorpions, the number one rule is: look where you are sitting and knock off your clothes and shoes.
Poisonous animals in Germany
In Deutschland gibt es keine Tiere, deren Biss oder Stich mit Wahrscheinlichkeit tödlich endet. Doch Respekt ist immer angesagt – falsches Verhalten lässt sich vermeiden.
Der Feuersalamander warnt durch seine schwarz-gelbe Farbe. Er wird bis 25 Zentimeter lang und fühlt sich in Mittelgebirgen am wohlsten. Die meiste Zeit verbringt er unter Laub, Rinden und Steinen. Bei Sommerregen kommen die Salamander zu hunderten hervor, Hitze mögen sie indessen gar nicht.
Die Tiere sondern ein schwach giftiges Sekret ab, das dient dazu, Pilze abzutöten. Sie fühlen ein leichtes Brennen auf der Haut, wenn sie die Tiere anfassen. Da der Salamander unter Naturschutz steht, sollten Sie das indessen sowieso unterlassen.
Der Dornfinger ist die giftigste Spinne Deutschlands, und in lichten Wälder wie Wiesen vor allem im Süden und Osten des Landes verbreitete. Er ist 1,5 cm groß, mit einem orangenen Oberkörper und einem grünen Hinterteil. Sein Biss ist schmerzhaft und kann sich entzünden.
Diese Viper ist die bekanntere der beiden deutschen Giftschlangen und stark bedroht. Sie bleibt unter einem Meter, liebt Moore, Heide und den Waldrand. Ihr Gift ist ziemlich stark, die Dosis des kleinen Tieres aber gering.
Ein Biss führt zu Atemnot und Herzbeschwerden. Zu einem Biss kommt es am häufigsten, wenn Sie sich bei einer Wanderung auf Heidekraut setzen, in dem sich die Schlange versteckt, oder mit den Händen in ihr Versteck greifen. Solche Unfälle sind aber extrem selten. Wenn die Schlange gebissen hat, gehen Sie umgehend zu einem Arzt.
Das gleiche gilt für die Aspisviper, die in Deutschland im Süden des Schwarzwaldes lebt. Ihr Gift ist schwächer als das der Kreuzotter und verursacht Herzprobleme wie Atembeschwerden. (Dr. Utz Anhalt)
Author and source information
This text corresponds to the requirements of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical doctors.
Dr. phil. Utz Anhalt, Barbara Schindewolf-Lensch
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- Robert A. Barish: Schlangenbisse, MSD Manual, (Abruf 22.08.2019), MSD
- Dietrich Mebs: Gifttiere, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft Stuttgart, 3. Auflage, 2010
- Robert A. Barish: Skorpionstiche, MSD Manual, (Abruf 22.08.2019), MSD
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